Addis Ababa Agreement 1972

Page 267 Note 2 Sudan-Tanzania Joint Release, 1972, Khartoum, S.S.U. Records, Executive Office, mimeographed. Page 262 Note 1 The Sudan Research Unit, founded in 1964 at The University of Khartoum, and its extension to the Institute of African and Asian Studies in July 1972 have re-influenced these efforts at the academic level. The publication of the work of the February 1968 international conference was an important step “in the objective definition of Sudan`s place in Africa.” See Hasan, Yusuf Fadl (note), Sudan in Africa (Khartoum, 1971), preface. Page 259 Note 1 See United Nations General Assembly, Aide-Memory Appeal for Assistance for the Government of the Sudan (New York, 1972), p. 3; and U.N.H.C.R., The Water-Road: Highway to regional development at Qala in Nahal, Sudan (Geneva, 1972), p. 8, deals fully with the issue of Eritrean refugees in Sudan. In 1971, the South Sudanese rebels, formerly composed of several independent commandos, were brought together under the leadership of General Joseph Lagu, who, under his leadership, united both anya Nya`s combat units and their political wing, the South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). In 1971, as General Lagu`s representative, the SSLM spoke with the Sudanese government on proposals for regional autonomy and cessation of hostilities. These discussions culminated in the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement on 27 February 1972. The agreement ended 17 years of conflict between Anya Nya and the Sudanese army and launched autonomy for the southern region, which was no longer to be divided between the three provinces of Al-Istiw`iyyah (Equatoria), Baar al-Ghazel and A`l al-Nel (Upper Nile). The affairs of the region would be controlled by a separate legislative and executive body and Anya Nya`s soldiers would be integrated into the Sudanese army and police.

The Addis Ababa agreement brought Nimeiri prestige abroad and popularity in his own country. Page 262 Note 2 The Palestine Liberation Organization opened its office in Khartoum in 1961 and received a $50,000 gift in 1967. Although it was permitted to be broadcast as the voice of Palestine by Omdurman radio, this authorization was withdrawn after opposition to the Egyptian adoption of the UN Security Council resolution on Palestine in November 1967 and Rodgers` proposals in July 1970, a position supported by Sudan. This transfer did not resume, but in January 1971, a gift from S40,000 to the P.L.O. In 1972, in the face of the lowest relations in relations between Sudan and Egypt, the President reaffirmed the support of Sudanese commandos and criticized him for its setbacks due to the fact that the Arab states bordering Israel had hindered their free work. Even before the official end of the agreement, the civil war between the South and the North had resumed with even more savages than before. Since the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972, there have been sporadic uprisings in the South, but they were quickly suppressed.