While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Kartha S, Athanasiou T, Caney S, Cripps E, Dooley K, Dubash N, Fei T, Harris P, Holz C, Lahn B, Moellendorf D, Muller B, Roberts T, Sagar A, Shue H, Singer P, Winkler H (2018) Cascading Biases against poorer countries. Nat Clim Change 8:348-349 Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not take place until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a “facilitation dialogue” on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020. Both of these issues need to be the subject of a political approach. If self-differentiation is compatible with subtle differentiation, the CBDR-RC compromise of the Paris Agreement would be put in place and the NDCs would be able to play their role as key vessels in the implementation of the Paris Agreement. That is why we recommend that developed countries include their project to help developing countries implement the NDCs in their NdS (Pauw et al.
(2018); ONU-OHLLRS (2019); UNESCO (2018); UNFCCC (2019); UNFCCC (2014); UNFCCC (2013); 1997: UNFCCC; United Nations (1992). The Paris Agreement provides for a number of binding procedural obligations. The parties are committed to preparing, communicating and maintaining successive NDCs; “domestic mitigation measures” to achieve their NDCs; report regularly on their emissions and on progress in implementing their NDCs. The agreement also provides that the successive NDCs of each party “will represent a progression” beyond their previous one and “reflect its highest possible ambitions.” Obtaining their NDC by a party is not a legally binding obligation.